Tumors of the Scrotum

Tumors of the scrotal skin are rare. The most common benign lesion is a sebaceous cyst. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the scrotum, although rare cases of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma have been reported. In the past, squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum most commonly resulted from exposure to environmental carcinogens including chimney soot, tars, paraffin, and some petroleum products. Today, most cases result from poor hygiene and chronic inflammation.

Biopsy of the scrotal lesion must be performed to establish a histologic diagnosis. Wide excision with a 2-cm margin should be performed for malignant tumors. Surrounding subcutaneous tissue should be excised with the primary tumor; however, resection of the scrotal contents is rarely necessary. Primary closure using the redundant scrotal skin is usually possible. The management of inguinal nodes should be similar to that of penile cancer.

Prognosis correlates with the presence or absence of nodal involvement. In the presence of inguinal node metastasis, the 5-year survival rate is approximately 25%; there are virtually no survivors if iliac nodes are involved.

REFERENCES

Tumors of the Testis
American Joint Committee on Cancer: TNM Classification - Genitourinary Sites. 1996.

Berthelsen JG et al: Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer. Br Med J 1982;285:1683.

Boden G, Gibb R: Radiotherapy and testicular neoplasms. Lancet 1951;2:1195.

Carroll PR, Presti JC Jr: Testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am 1998; 25(3). (Entire issue.)

Henderson BE, Ross RK, Pike MC: Epidemiology of testicular cancer. In: Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G (editors): Diagnosis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. Saunders, 1988.

Sogani PC et al: Orchiectomy alone in treatment of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis. J Clin Oncol 1984;2:267.

Tumors of the Penis
American Joint Committee on Cancer: TNM Classification - Genitourinary Sites. 1996.

Cabanas RM: An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma. Cancer 1977;39:456.

Catalona WJ: Modified inguinal lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the penis with preservation of saphenous veins: Technique and preliminary results. J Urol 1988;140:306.

Jackson SM: The treatment of carcinoma of the penis. Br J Surg 1966;53:33.

Mohs FE et al: Microscopically controlled surgery in the treatment of carcinoma of the penis. J Urol 1985;133:961.

Provided by ArmMed Media
Revision date: July 7, 2011
Last revised: by Andrew G. Epstein, M.D.