Skin cancer risk of Hormonal Contraception

Skin expresses estrogen,  progesterone,  and androgen receptors.  Steroid hormones,  such as those contained in oral contraceptives,affect skin cell cycle control.

Consequently,  they can induce increase of epidermal growth factor signaling,  expression   of   proto-oncogenes,  inhibition   of   apoptosis, DNA replication and,  potentially can promote tumor development.

However,  available evidence suggests that while the skin responds to estrogens,  progestins,  and androgens,  these responses do not significantly increase the risk of developing skin cancer when estrogen exposure is not excessive   (76,77). The question of whether oral contraceptives increase the risk for the development of skin cancer, particularly melanoma is still an area of concern (76,77)

Several studies confirmed that ever being pregnant, age at first pregnancy, current use of hormonal contraceptives,  duration of their use,and age at first use of oral contraceptives have   an   absence   or   no   consistent   association   with   melanoma (78,79,80).

While, women who had had three or more children seem to be significantly protected as compared to nulliparous ones.  In fact seems that women with both earlier age at first birth (< 20 years)  and higher parity (> or=5live birth)have a particular lower risk than women with later age at first birth (> or=25 years)  and lower parity. (81,82,83).

However, other factors could act ,such as excessive sun exposure as beach holidays for 3 weeks or more. (82).

In fact, history of sunburn and   intensive   sun-UV   exposure, both   can   are   important   factors   for   the development   of   melanocytic   nevi   and,indirectly   for   melanoma (76,83,84).

Intermittent and intense sun exposure, during the life, could increase the risk,while prolonged exposure,as during outdoor works,seems not associated with the same risk   (85,86).

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