Unclear cancer risks of Hormonal Contraception
Literature data no reported significant association of age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and exogenous hormone use with bladder cancer risk. Findings suggest that menopausal status and age at menopause may play a role in modifying bladder cancer risk among women (128).
For postmenopausal women, early age at menopause (</=45 years) compared with late age at menopause (>/=50 years) was reported associated with a statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer (incidence rate ratio = 1.63 ). The association between age at menopause and bladder cancer risk could be modified by cigarette smoking status (1,129).
Greater incidence of thyroid cancer in women than men, particularly evident during the reproductive years, has led to the suggestion that female hormones may increase the risk for this disease.
A study estimating the relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer among users of exogenous hormones among 410 women aged 45 to 64 years, observed no association of use of ormonal contraceptives (HCs) or HRT with risk of papillary thyroid cancer.
Adverse Effects of Hormonal contraception
- Cardiovascular Effects
- - Myocardial Infarction
- - Stroke
- - Arterial Accidents
- - Venous Thromboembolism
- - Blood Hypertension
- Other Effects
- - Angioedema
- - Peliosis Hepatis
- - Severe Adverse Ocular Reactions
- - Vasculitis
- Moderate adverse effects
- Cancer Risks
- - Breast cancer risk
- - Ovarian cancer risk
- - Endometrial cancer risk
- - Cervical cancer risk
- - Colorectal cancer risk
- - Skin cancer risk
- - Liver cancer risk
- - Pancreatic cancer risk
- - Neurofibromas growth
- - Unclear cancer risks
- Hazardous prescription
- Hormonal contraception in female transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female kidney recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female liver transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female heart transplant recipients
- - Contraception in women HIV infected
- Mild Adverse effects
- New Perspectives immunocontraception
- Contraceptive counseling
Among women less than 45 years of age, risk of papillary thyroid cancer was reduced in women who had ever used HCs (OR = 0.6); beyond the relation with ever-use, there was no further association with specific aspects of exposure such as estrogenic potency, latency, recency, age at first or last use, or use at the reference date.
Therfore, the data do not support the hypothesis that use of exogenous estrogens increases the risk of female thyroid cancer (130). The role of exogenous hormone exposures in the development of meningioma is unclear.
Little evidence of associations between meningioma and exogenous hormone exposures in women was found but did suggest that some hormonal exposures may influence tumor biology in those women who develop meningioma (131).
Rosa Sabatini and Giuseppe Loverro
Dept. Obstetrics and Gynecology,
General Hospital Policlinico-University of Bari, Italy
- La Vecchiam, C., Negri, E., Franceschi, S., Parazzini, F. (1993). Long-term impact of reproductive factors on cancer risk. Int J Cancer, Jan 21, 53(2), 215-9.
- Medard, M.L., Ostrowska, L. (2007).Combined oral contraception and the risk of reproductive organs cancer in women .Ginekol Pol, Aug,78(8), 637-41.
- Casey, P.M., Cerhan, J.R., Pruthi, S. (2008). Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer. Mayo Clin Proc,Jan,83),86-90
- Deligeoroglou, E., Michailidis, E., Creatsas, G. (2003).Oral contraceptives and reproductive system cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci,Nov,997,199-208.
- White, E., Malone, K.E., Weiss, N.S., Daling, J.R. (1994). Breast cancer among young US women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J. Nati Cancer Inst, 86(7), 505-14
- Brohet, R.M., Goldgar, D.E., Easton, D.F., Antoniou, A.C., Andrieu, N., Chang-Claude, J., Peock, S., Eeles, R.A., Cook, M., Chu, C., Nogue`s, C., Lasset, C., Berthet, P., Meijers-Heijboer, H., Gerdes, A.M., Olsson, H., Caldes, T., van Leeuwen, F.E., Rookus, M.A. (2007). Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and the IBCCS Collaborating Group.J Clin Oncol, Sep 1,25(25), 3831-6.
- Haile, R.W., Thoma, D.C., McGuire, V., Felberg, A., John, E.M., Milne, R.L., Hopper, J.L. et.al. (2006). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, oral contraceptives use,and breast cancer before age 50. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarker Prev, 15(10), 1863-70.
- Daling, J.R., Brinton, L.A., Voigt, L.F., Weiss, N.S., Coates, R.J., Malone, K.E., Schoenberg, J.B., Gammon, M. (1996). Risk of breast cancer among white women following induced abortion. Am J Epidemiol, Aug 15,144(4), 373-80.
- Daling, J.R., Malone, K.E., Voigt, L.F., White, E., Weiss, N.S. (1997). Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship Med to induced abortion. N Engl J, 336(2), 81-5
- Rookus, M.A., van Leeuwen, F.E. (1996).Induced abortion and risk for breast cancer: reporting (recall) bias in a Dutch case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 88 (23),1759-64
- Van Leeuwen, F.E. (1991). Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer. Acta Endocrinol, 125(1), 13.