Conclusion - adverse effects of Hormonal contraception

The world population is expected to increase by 2.6 billion to 9.1 billion in 2050 (1).  Particularly,  the developing countries contribute to this growth with consequent   increase   of   their   social   and   economic   problems. So, this overpopulation stresses the discrepancy between developed and developing states.

The report “The Evolution of the Family in Europe 2008” declares that over 1.16 milion of legal abortions are performed each year in Europe.  The real global incidence is unknown and each supposed percentage results underestimated.

Besides, an estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year,resulting in the death of about 70,000 women.

The majority of these abortion occur in under-resourced settings as sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southeast   Asia, and   Latin   America   and   the   Caribbean.

The   causes   include inadequate delivery systems for contraception, restrictive abortion laws,  cultural and   religious   influences (2,3,4).

With   worldwide   unintended   pregnancy   rates approaching   50%  of   all   pregnancies, there   is   an   increased   need   for   the improvement of hormonal contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation.

Currently, pharmacological methods of contraception are reversible contraceptive steroids formulated in pills, patches,  intravaginal rings,  subdermal implants and injections(5,6).

Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component,  and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. However, these disorders are not clinically significant. They can lead to erratic method use or even to discontinuation(7).

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