Conclusion - adverse effects of Hormonal contraception
The world population is expected to increase by 2.6 billion to 9.1 billion in 2050 (1). Particularly, the developing countries contribute to this growth with consequent increase of their social and economic problems. So, this overpopulation stresses the discrepancy between developed and developing states.
The report “The Evolution of the Family in Europe 2008” declares that over 1.16 milion of legal abortions are performed each year in Europe. The real global incidence is unknown and each supposed percentage results underestimated.
Besides, an estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year,resulting in the death of about 70,000 women.
The majority of these abortion occur in under-resourced settings as sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
The causes include inadequate delivery systems for contraception, restrictive abortion laws, cultural and religious influences (2,3,4).
Adverse Effects of Hormonal contraception
- Moderate adverse effects
- Cardiovascular Effects
- Other Effects
- Cancer Risks
- Contraception in women HIV infected
- Mild Adverse effects
- - Irregular Bleeding Pattern
- - Ovarian cysts
- - Depression
- - Low Libido
- - Vaginal Infections
- New Perspectives immunocontraception
- - PMRS and PAS
- Contraceptive counseling
With worldwide unintended pregnancy rates approaching 50% of all pregnancies, there is an increased need for the improvement of hormonal contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation.
Currently, pharmacological methods of contraception are reversible contraceptive steroids formulated in pills, patches, intravaginal rings, subdermal implants and injections(5,6).
Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. However, these disorders are not clinically significant. They can lead to erratic method use or even to discontinuation(7).