Liver cancer risk of Hormonal Contraception
Liver cell adenomas are rare benign tumors whose incidence has been increasing since 1970 (91).
They generally occur in otherwise healthy women over age 30, who have used hormonal contraceptives (HCs) for five years or longer (92,93).
In fact,evidence proved the link between the raise of incidence of hepatic adenomas and the widespread and prolonged use of the"pill” (94,95, 96).
Not rarely benign liver tumours are incidental findings on echography. Liver cell adenomas are not premalignant and may undergo reversible change after withdrawal of causative agents,such as oral contraceptives (97,98,99 ).
However, these tumors which regress when OC use stops, can reoccur if HC use is reinstituted or if pregnancy occurs (94,100).
Adverse Effects of Hormonal contraception
- Cardiovascular Effects
- - Myocardial Infarction
- - Stroke
- - Arterial Accidents
- - Venous Thromboembolism
- - Blood Hypertension
- Other Effects
- - Angioedema
- - Peliosis Hepatis
- - Severe Adverse Ocular Reactions
- - Vasculitis
- Moderate adverse effects
- Cancer Risks
- - Breast cancer risk
- - Ovarian cancer risk
- - Endometrial cancer risk
- - Cervical cancer risk
- - Colorectal cancer risk
- - Skin cancer risk
- - Liver cancer risk
- - Pancreatic cancer risk
- - Neurofibromas growth
- - Unclear cancer risks
- Hazardous prescription
- Hormonal contraception in female transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female kidney recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female liver transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female heart transplant recipients
- - Contraception in women HIV infected
- Mild Adverse effects
- New Perspectives immunocontraception
- Contraceptive counseling
The most extensive complication of hepatic adenoma is intratumoral or intraperitoneal hemorrhage, which occurs in 50 to 60 per cent of patients (101).
The risk of developing adenoma is increased with duration of oral contraceptive use, and in larger tumors, the hemorrhagic risk is also increased in pill users (93,101).
Adenoma also occurs in people with Type Ia glycogen storage disease,and is associated with insulin dependent diabetes (101).
Some authors believe that liver cell adenomas are potentially premalignant and could degenerate into hepatocellular carcinoma but there is very few well documented reports of this transformation (101,102,103 ). Although a recent report shows that 10% of hepatic adenoma progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (102).