Evidence suggests that there is no causal link between oral contraceptive use and melanoma or with benign melanocytic nevi, nor has a specific subgroup of women been consistently implicated, as being at increased risk of this disease due to use of oral contraceptives (76,83,84).
However, based upon small numbers of cases, there was evidence that changes in nevi during recent pregnancies were a risk factor for melanoma (OR = 2.9) (76,83).
Reproductive hormonal factors may have a potential role in cutaneous melanoma but oral contraceptive use does not increase the risk of developing melanoma and generally skin cancer when estrogen exposure is not excessive (86,87,88,89).
Adverse Effects of Hormonal contraception
- Cardiovascular Effects
- - Myocardial Infarction
- - Stroke
- - Arterial Accidents
- - Venous Thromboembolism
- - Blood Hypertension
- Other Effects
- - Angioedema
- - Peliosis Hepatis
- - Severe Adverse Ocular Reactions
- - Vasculitis
- Moderate adverse effects
- Cancer Risks
- - Breast cancer risk
- - Ovarian cancer risk
- - Endometrial cancer risk
- - Cervical cancer risk
- - Colorectal cancer risk
- - Skin cancer risk
- - Liver cancer risk
- - Pancreatic cancer risk
- - Neurofibromas growth
- - Unclear cancer risks
- Hazardous prescription
- Hormonal contraception in female transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female kidney recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female liver transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female heart transplant recipients
- - Contraception in women HIV infected
- Mild Adverse effects
- New Perspectives immunocontraception
- Contraceptive counseling
Furthermore,women who reported experiencing hyperpigmentation of facial skin during prior pregnancy seem to have a lowered risk for all cutaneous melanoma.
Similarly,women who reported use of acne medication (81,89).
These aspects should be studied further. These data suggest an overall lack of effect of oral contraceptives on cutaneous melanoma risk, in the women population. Although was evaluated that the relative risk, associated with oral contraceptives use for a long period (5 years or longer),which had begun at least 10 years before the melanoma is 1.5(OR) (86).
Rate of European mortality from cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) between 1960 and 1999 have tended to decline since 1990s and this improvement resulted particularly favourable in young women (90).
Rosa Sabatini and Giuseppe Loverro
Dept. Obstetrics and Gynecology,
General Hospital Policlinico-University of Bari, Italy
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