The relative risk (RR) of incidence of haemorrhagic stroke was 2.72 times compared with that in the IUD users. Furthermore, the RR of current users of HC was 4.20 and still reached 2.17 among past users after they stopped taking HC for more than 10 years (33).
While,other studies had found no statistically significant increase in the risk of stroke among HC past users without other risk factors.In fact, for past users compared with never users the odds ratio was 0.59 (34).
Current users of low-dose oral contraceptives had a risk for stroke similar to that of women who have never used these medications and the results did not differ appreciably between Hemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke.
Adverse Effects of Hormonal contraception
- Cardiovascular Effects
- - Myocardial Infarction
- - Stroke
- - Arterial Accidents
- - Venous Thromboembolism
- - Blood Hypertension
- Other Effects
- - Angioedema
- - Peliosis Hepatis
- - Severe Adverse Ocular Reactions
- - Vasculitis
- Moderate adverse effects
- Cancer Risks
- - Breast cancer risk
- - Ovarian cancer risk
- - Endometrial cancer risk
- - Cervical cancer risk
- - Colorectal cancer risk
- - Skin cancer risk
- - Liver cancer risk
- - Pancreatic cancer risk
- - Neurofibromas growth
- - Unclear cancer risks
- Hazardous prescription
- Hormonal contraception in female transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female kidney recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female liver transplant recipients
- - Hormonal contraception in female heart transplant recipients
- - Contraception in women HIV infected
- Mild Adverse effects
- New Perspectives immunocontraception
- Contraceptive counseling
Although other studies reported that the incidence of total stroke among 18-44 –year-old was 11.3 per 100,000 women-years, and the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was higher than the rate of ischemic stroke (6.4 per 100.000 women-year compared with 4.3 per 100.000 women-year).
Compared with women who had never used com bined oral contraceptives(COCs), current users of low-dose COCs had estimated odds tatio of 0.93 for hemorrhagic stroke and 0.89 for ischemic stroke (35,36,37).
There is insufficient information to determine whether major differences in the risk of ischaemic stroke exist between different formulations.
Data examining the risk of haemorrhagic stroke in current COC users with other risk factors are very sparse, as are those relating to the haemorrhagic stroke risk associated with particular COCs. Literature data are scarce and sometimes showed methodological limitations. There is a discrepancy between the different studies.
It is important to remember that we define stroke as the rapid onset of loss of cerebral function that lasted at least 24 hours and could not be ascribed to subdural hematoma or to other diseases: neurologic, neoplastic, infection, seizure or multiple sclerosis.