Diseases of the Rectum and Anus

Obstructed Defecation
Jan 28 08


• Inability to voluntarily evacuate rectal contents.

• Normal colonic transit time.

General Considerations

Obstructed defecation may result from anal stenosis,… Obstructed Defecation   


Dysfunction of the Anorectum - Incontinence
Jan 28 08

ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS • Inability to control elimination of rectal contents. • Characterization of rectal contents that are uncontrolled. • Characterization of timing of… Dysfunction of the Anorectum - Incontinence   

Normal Function of the Anorectum
Jan 28 08

The normal function of the anorectum is storage and appropriate release of intestinal waste products. The rectum functions mainly as a capacitance storage vessel.… Normal Function of the Anorectum   


Anorectal Diseases - General Anatomic Considerations
Jan 28 08

Embryologic considerations are important when considering the epithelium, innervation, vascular supply, and venous and lymphatic drainage of the anorectum. The rectum, endodermal in origin,… Anorectal Diseases - General Anatomic Considerations   


Congenital Anomalies of the Anorectum
Jan 26 08

The spectrum of anorectal malformations ranges from simple anal stenosis to the persistence of a cloaca; incidence ranges from one in 4000 to one… Congenital Anomalies of the Anorectum   


Infections of the perianal area
Jan 26 08

Many of the infections affecting the perianal area are covered elsewhere in this text. Perianal streptococcal infection is common during infancy and childhood. Major… Infections of the perianal area   


Anorectal Disorders in sexual Abuse
Jan 26 08

Anal assault constitutes a significant proportion of all injuries resulting from childhood sexual abuse. In a recent review of 310 childhood victims of sexual… Anorectal Disorders in sexual Abuse   


Jan 24 08

Itching of the perianal skin, or pruritus ani, is more common in males and has an extensive etiology (Table… PRURITUS ANI   


Radiation Proctitis
Jan 24 08

Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis occurs most commonly with radiation therapy for cancers of the testes, prostate, urinary bladder, cervix, and uterus (23,24).  The incidence of radiation… Radiation Proctitis   


Fecal incontinence
Jan 24 08

Fecal incontinence is a distressing and stigmatizing condition affecting at least 2% of the adult population and 7% of healthy, independent adults aged >65… Fecal incontinence   


Rectal Prolapse and Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome
Jan 24 08

Rectal prolapse involves the protrusion of the rectum through the anal orifice with procidentia or complete prolapse, which is the common scenario, where all… Rectal Prolapse and Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome   


Anorectal fistulas
Jan 24 08

Anorectal fistulas are generally uncommon, with some studies reporting an incidence of 8.6 per 100,000 (16).  The leading causes are nonspecific in 90% of… Anorectal fistulas   


Anal fissures
Jan 24 08

An anal fissure is a laceration in the lining of the anal canal distal to the dentate line, which most commonly occurs in the… Anal fissures   


Jan 24 08

Hemorrhoids are masses of normal vascular tissue in the anal canal and are often the source of a variety of symptoms including bleeding, anal… Hemorrhoids   


Clinical Examination of the Anorectum
Jan 24 08

An accurate examination of the anorectum is required in the setting of symptoms referred to that region and should be part of a patient’s… Clinical Examination of the Anorectum   

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