Health news
Health news top Health news

   Login  |  Register    
Health News Make AMN Your Home PageDiscussion BoardsAdvanced Search ToolMedical RSS/XML News FeedHealth news

Classification of Breast Diseases: The ANDI Concept

Breast Diseases in AdolescentsSep 25, 06

Three major phases associated with the physiological processes of the mammary gland characterize this new classification.

Lobular Development between Puberty and 25 Years of Age
Lobular development is important during the early reproductive stage (from puberty to 25 years of age). At this time, the high cellular activity of the lobules explains the higher frequency of fibroadenomas at this period. Later, the first lobules are gradually replaced by more mature and less active lobules during the cyclical period, and especially after pregnancy. At the end of reproductive life, involution particularly affects the lobules.

Cyclical Hormonal Modifications between Puberty and 50 Years of Age
The normality of different histological structures of the mammary gland seems to very much depend on a normal, balanced relationship between epithelial and stromal elements. Both these elements are under hormonal control, and the hormonal modifications occurring at each cycle have been much analyzed.

However, the interpretation of these in vitro studies remains difficult because the correlation with in vivo studies is not straightforward; a repeated histological breast biopsy in the same women is not justified. The cyclical modifications of different mammary constituents vary considerably between women, as well as within the same woman after breastfeeding when profound and powerful hormonal modifications occur. Because of the inevitable variations, the likelihood of minor abnormalities is rather high after 35 years.

Breast Involution between 35 and 55 Years

Involution starts by 35 years of age, sometimes earlier. The process of lobular involution associated with cyclical changes occurs over a long period (20 years). If the balance between these two processes is not respected, minor aberrations are highly probable. This period of fluctuating involution extending over 20 years thus explains the high frequency of minor breast aberrations. It appears that normal epithelial involution of the lobule is dependent on the continuing presence of the specialized stroma around it. Should the stroma disappear too early, the epithelial acini remain and may form microcysts. Since microcyst formation is associated with involution of stroma, breast cysts are rare in adolescent girls.

In conclusion, these three periods have distinct clinical presentations, but overlapping and interacting processes also lead to complex clinical situations.

Provided by ArmMed Media
Revision date: July 7, 2011
Last revised: by Tatiana Kuznetsova, D.M.D.

Email this to a friend Bookmark this! Printable Version

RELATED STORIES:


 Comments [ + Post Your Own

Now you're in the public comment zone. What follows is not Armenian Medical Network's stuff; it comes from other people and we don't vouch for it. A reminder: By using this Web site you agree to accept our Terms of Service. Click here to read the Rules of Engagement.

There are no comments for this entry yet. [ + Comment here + ]




We are pleased to let readers post comments about an article. Please increase the credibility of your post by including your full name and email.

All comments are reviewed by our editors before they are posted on the site. Just keep it clean, kids.

Name:

Email:

Location:

URL:

Remember my personal information

Notify me of follow-up comments?

Please enter the word you see in the image below:


   [advanced search]   
Interactive Quiz:
1. The most common form of contraception used by couples in the United States is
Pills
Condom
Diaphragm
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Permanent sterilization

UrologyToday.net


Health Centers
  Pediatric & Adolescent
  Gynecology


  Teenage Pregnancy

  Contraception for Adolescents

  Delayed Puberty

  Menstrual Irregularities

  Adolescent Dysmenorrhea

  Hyperandrogenism

  Ovarian Masses

  Breast Diseases

  Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  Chronic Pelvic Pain
  Gynecologic Clinical
  Examination


  Imaging in Pediatric
  Gynecology


  Ambiguous Genitalia in the
  Newborn


  Ovarian Cysts

  Precocious Puberty

  Sexual Abuse

  Vulvo-Vaginal Disorders


  Gynecology


  Endometriosis

  Premenstrual Syndrome

  Dysmenorrhea

  Vaginitis

  Cervicitis

  Cervical Polyps

  Genital Prolapse

  Uterine Prolapse

  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

  Ovarian Tumors

  Painful Intercourse

  Infertility

  Rape

  Menopausal Syndrome

  Contraception

  Urinary Incontinence

  Overview

  Stress Urinary Incontinence

  Urge Urinary Incontinence

  Mixed Incontinence

  Overflow Incontinence

  Bypass Incontinence

  Pregnancy Health Center

  Gynecologic cancers

  Obstetrics

  Diagnosis of pregnancy

  Essentials of Prenatal care

  Nutrition in Pregnancy

  Morning Sickness

  Spontaneous Abortion

  Recurrent (Habitual) Abortion

  Ectopic Pregnancy

  Preeclampsia-Eclampsia

  Third-trimester Bleeding

  Surgical Complications

  Hemolytic Disease Prevention

  Premature Labor Prevention

  Puerperal Mastitis

» » »



Health Centers





Diabetes









Health news
  


Health Encyclopedia

Diseases & Conditions

Drugs & Medications

Health Tools

Health Tools



   Health newsletter

  





   Medical Links



   RSS/XML News Feed



   Feedback






Add to Google Reader or Homepage
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology News, Headlines and Latest Stories on Health.am
Add to My AOL