Brain injury

Alternative names
Concussion - first aid; Head injury; Head trauma


A Head injury is any trauma that leads to injury of the scalp, skull, or brain. These injuries can range from a minor bump on the skull to a devastating brain injury.

Head injury can be classified as either closed or penetrating. In a closed Head injury, the head sustains a blunt force by striking against an object. A concussion is a type of closed Head injury that involves the brain.

In a penetrating Head injury, an object breaks through the skull and enters the brain. (This object is usually moving at a high speed like a windshield or another part of a motor vehicle.)


Every year, approximately two million people sustain a Head injury. Most of these injuries are minor because the skull provides the brain with considerable protection. The symptoms of minor head injuries usually go away on their own. More than half a million head injuries a year, however, are severe enough to require hospitalization.

Learning to recognize a serious Head injury, and implementing basic first aid, can make the difference in saving someone’s life.

In patients who have suffered a severe Head injury, there is often one or more other organ systems injured. For example, a Head injury is sometimes accompanied by a spinal injury.


Accidents are the leading cause of death or disability in men under age 35, and over 70% of accidents involve head injuries and/or spinal cord injuries.

Common causes of Head injury include traffic accidents, falls, physical assault, and accidents at home, work, outdoors, or while playing sports.

Some head injuries result in prolonged or non-reversible brain damage. This can occur as a result of bleeding inside the brain or forces that damage the brain directly. These more serious head injuries may cause:

  • Changes in personality, emotions, or mental abilities  
  • Speech and language problems  
  • Loss of sensation, hearing, vision, taste, or smell  
  • Seizures  
  • Paralysis  
  • Coma


The signs of a Head injury can occur immediately or develop slowly over several hours. Even if the skull is not fractured, the brain can bang against the inside of the skull and be bruised. (This is called a concussion.) The head may look fine, but complications could result from bleeding inside the skull.

When encountering a person who just had a Head injury, try to find out what happened. If he or she cannot tell you, look for clues and ask witnesses. In any serious head trauma, always assume the spinal cord is also injured.

The following symptoms suggest a more serious Head injury that requires emergency medical treatment:

  • Loss of consciousness, confusion, or drowsiness  
  • Low breathing rate or drop in blood pressure  
  • Convulsions  
  • Fracture in the skull or face, facial bruising, swelling at the site of the injury, or scalp wound  
  • Fluid drainage from nose, mouth, or ears (may be clear or bloody)  
  • Severe headache  
  • Initial improvement followed by worsening symptoms  
  • Irritability (especially in children), personality changes, or unusual behavior  
  • Restlessness, clumsiness, lack of coordination  
  • Slurred speech or blurred vision  
  • Inability to move one or more limbs  
  • Stiff neck or vomiting  
  • Pupil changes  
  • Inability to hear, see, taste, or smell

First Aid

For a mild Head injury, no specific treatment may be needed. However, closely watch the person for any concerning symptoms over the next 24 hours. The symptoms of a serious Head injury can be delayed. While the person is sleeping, wake him or her every 2 to 3 hours and ask simple questions to check alertness, such as “What is your name?”

If a child begins to play or run immediately after getting a bump on the head, serious injury is unlikely. However, as with anyone with a Head injury, closely watch the child for 24 hours after the incident.

Over-the-counter pain medicine (like acetaminophen or ibuprofen) may be used for a mild headache. DO NOT take aspirin, because it can increase the risk of bleeding.

Get medical help immediately if the person:

  • Becomes unusually drowsy  
  • Develops a severe headache or stiff neck  
  • Vomits more than once  
  • Loses consciousness (even if brief)  
  • Behaves abnormally

For a moderate to severe Head injury, take the following steps:

  1. Call 911.
  2. Check the person’s airway, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
  3. If the person’s breathing and heart rate are normal but the person is unconscious, treat as if there is a spinal injury. Stabilize the head and neck by placing your hands on both sides of the person’s head, keeping the head in line with the spine and preventing movement. Wait for medical help.
  4. Stop any bleeding by firmly pressing a clean cloth on the wound. If the injury is serious, be careful not to move the person’s head. If blood soaks through the cloth, DO NOT remove it. Place another cloth over the first one.
  5. If you suspect a skull fracture, DO NOT apply direct pressure to the bleeding site, and DO NOT remove any debris from the wound. Cover the wound with sterile gauze dressing.
  6. If the person is vomiting, roll the head, neck, and body as one unit to prevent choking. This still protects the spine, which you must always assume is injured in the case of a Head injury. (Children often vomit ONCE after a Head injury. This may not be a problem, but call a doctor for further guidance.)
  7. Apply ice packs to swollen areas.

Do Not

  • DO NOT wash a head wound that is deep or bleeding a lot.  
  • DO NOT remove any object sticking out of a wound.  
  • DO NOT move the person unless absolutely necessary.  
  • DO NOT shake the person if he or she seems dazed.  
  • DO NOT remove a helmet if you suspect a serious Head injury.  
  • DO NOT pick up a fallen child with any sign of Head injury.  
  • DO NOT drink alcohol within 48 hours of a serious Head injury.

Call immediately for emergency medical assistance if

Call 911 if:

  • There is severe head or facial bleeding.  
  • The person is confused, drowsy, lethargic, or unconscious.  
  • The person stops breathing.  
  • You suspect a serious head or neck injury or the person develops any symptoms of a serious Head injury.


  • Always use safety equipment during activities that could result in Head injury. These include seat belts, bicycle or motorcycle helmets, and hard hats.  
  • Obey traffic signals when riding a bicycle. Be predictable so that other drivers will be able to determine your course.  
  • Be visible. DO NOT ride a bicycle at night.  
  • Use age-appropriate car seats or boosters for babies and young children.  
  • Make sure that children have a safe area in which to play.  
  • Supervise children of any age.  
  • DO NOT drink and drive, and DO NOT allow yourself to be driven by someone who you know or suspect has been drinking alcohol.


Johns Hopkins patient information

Last revised: December 8, 2012
by Brenda A. Kuper, M.D.

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All ArmMed Media material is provided for information only and is neither advice nor a substitute for proper medical care. Consult a qualified healthcare professional who understands your particular history for individual concerns.