Bursitis involves the inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between tendon and skin and/or between tendon and bone. The conditionn may be acute or chronic.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Bursae are fluid-filled cavities located at tissue sites where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences near joints. Their function is to aid in movement and reduce friction between moving parts.

Bursitis can be caused by chronic overuse, trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or infection. Sometimes the cause cannot be determined. Bursitis commonly occurs in the shoulder, knee (washmaid’s knee), elbow, and hip. Other areas that may be affected include the Achilles tendon and the foot.

Chronic inflammation can occur with repeated injuries or attacks of bursitis.


  * Joint pain and tenderness
  * Swelling
  * Warmth over the affected joint

Signs and tests

Physical examination shows tender or swollen joints.


Your health care provider may recommend temporary rest or immobilization of the affected joint.

NSAIDs such as ibruprofen may relieve pain and inflammation. Formal physical therapy may be helpful as well.

If the inflammation does not respond to conservative treatment, aspiration of fluid from the bursa and the injection of corticosteroids into the bursa may be necessary. Surgery is rarely required.

Exercises for the affected area should be started as the pain resolves. If muscle atrophy (weakness and/or decrease in size) has occurred, Your health care provider may suggest exercises to build strength and increase mobility.

Bursitis caused by infection is treated with antibiotics. Sometimes the infected bursa must be drained surgically.

Expectations (prognosis)
The condition may respond well to treatment, or it may develop into a chronic condition if the underlying cause cannot be corrected.

Chronic bursitis may occur.

Too many steroid injections over a short period of time can cause injury to the surrounding tendons.

Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if symptoms recur or do not improve with treatment.

Avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any body parts whenever possible.

Johns Hopkins patient information

Last revised:

Diseases and Conditions Center

  A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

All ArmMed Media material is provided for information only and is neither advice nor a substitute for proper medical care. Consult a qualified healthcare professional who understands your particular history for individual concerns.