Being physically active may significantly improve musculoskeletal and overall health, and minimize or delay the effects of aging, according to a review of the latest research on senior athletes (ages 65 and up) appearing in the September issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS).
It long has been assumed that aging causes an inevitable deterioration of the body and its ability to function, as well as increased rates of related injuries such as sprains, strains and fractures; diseases, such as obesity and diabetes; and osteoarthritis and other bone and joint conditions. However, recent research on senior, elite athletes suggests usage of comprehensive fitness and nutrition routines helps minimize bone and joint health decline and maintain overall physical health.
“An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates that we can modulate age-related decline in the musculoskeletal system,” said lead study author and orthopaedic surgeon Bryan G. Vopat, MD. “A lot of the deterioration we see with aging can be attributed to a more sedentary lifestyle instead of aging itself.”
The positive effects of physical activity on maintaining bone density, muscle mass, ligament and tendon function, and cartilage volume are keys to optimal physical function and health. In addition, the literature recommends a combined physical activity regimen for all adults encompassing resistance, endurance, flexibility and balance training, “as safely allowable for a given person.” Among the recommendations:
Resistance training. Prolonged, intense resistance training can increase muscle strength, lean muscle and bone mass more consistently than aerobic exercise alone. Moderately intense resistance regimens also decrease fat mass. Sustained lower and upper body resistance training bolsters bone density and reduces the risk of strains, sprains and acute fractures.
Endurance training. Sustained and at least moderately intensive aerobic training promotes heart health, increases oxygen consumption, and has been linked to other musculoskeletal benefits, including less accumulation of fat mass, maintenance of muscle strength and cartilage volumes. A minimum of 150 to 300 minutes a week of endurance training, in 10 to 30 minute episodes, for elite senior athletes is recommended. Less vigorous and/or short-duration aerobic regimens may provide limited benefit.
Flexibility and balance. Flexibility exercises are strongly recommended for active older adults to maintain range of motion, optimize performance and limit injury. Two days a week or more of flexibility training - sustained stretches and static/non-ballistic (non-resistant) movements - are recommended for senior athletes. Progressively difficult postures (depending on tolerance and ability) are recommended for improving and maintaining balance.
The study also recommends “proper” nutrition for older, active adults to optimize performance. For senior athletes, a daily protein intake of 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg is recommended, as well as carbohydrate consumption of 6 to 8 g/kg (more than 8 g/kg in the days leading up to an endurance event).
“Regimens must be individualized for older adults according to their baseline level of conditioning and disability, and be instituted gradually and safely, particularly for elderly and poorly conditioned adults,” said Dr. Vopat. According to study authors, to improve fitness levels and minimize bone and joint health decline, when safely allowable, patients should be encouraged to continually exceed the minimum exercise recommendations.
Orthopaedic surgeons restore mobility and reduce pain; they help people get back to work and to independent, productive lives. Visit ANationInMotion.org to read successful orthopaedic stories.
From the Department of Orthopaedics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI. (Bryan G. Vopat, MD, Stephen A. Klinge, MD; Philip K. McClure, MD; Paul D. Fadale, MD).
Benefits of Lifetime Fitness
If you want to feel and look better, lifetime fitness is what you should engage in. lifetime fitness involves regular exercises and work out. Regardless of age, weight and sex, exercising should be a part of our daily lives. With lifetime fitness, you can be assured of more energy and a longer life. The following are more benefits of lifetime fitness.
1. Healthy weight
With lifetime fitness, you can be able to gradually drop excess pounds. Engaging in physical activities helps you burn calories and the more intense the activities are, the more calories you will be able to burn. This kind of exercise helps you to keep your weight under control. You will not have to set aside time for working out because you could always take the stairs or take long walks. Inasmuch as dedicated workouts are great, lifetime fitness becomes helpful when you accumulate physical activities throughout the day.
2. Prevents chronic diseases
Lifetime fitness helps to combat or manage osteoporosis, heart diseases, high blood pressure among many others. Regular physical activities also boost high density lipoprotein (HDL) while reducing triglycerides. With such activities, your blood will flow smoothly which is important to maintain a healthy body with functioning organs.
3. Improves moods
If you have had a stressful day, working out instead of taking beer might be the best remedy. A work out or a 30 minute walk can be of great help. Physical activities usually stimulate several brain chemicals which may leave you feeling relaxed and happier than you did before the work out. With lifetime fitness, you will also feel and look better which can be of great help when it comes to boosting your confidence and self-esteem. Lifetime fitness also helps keep depression at bay.
Dr. Fadale or an immediate family member has received research or institutional support from Arthrex, DePuy, Mitek, and Smith & Nephew. None of the following authors or any immediate family member has received anything of value from or owns stock in a commercial company or institution related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article: Dr. Vopat, Dr. Klinge, and Dr. McClure.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons