Most other paraphilias are variants or combinations of common paraphilias, with some distinctive characteristics that have led to their being given individual names. Some unnamed paraphilias are very individualistic and involve elaborate rituals combining elements of other more common paraphilias.
For example, telephone scatophilia is a variant of exhibitionism/voyeurism in which the telephone is used to act out sexual fantasies and to elicit a reaction to sexual content from the listener or is used to eavesdrop on an individual’s private sexual thoughts. Consensual telephone sex, including commercial sex lines, would not be considered paraphilic unless it became a compulsive substitute for other sexual outlets, and significantly distressed the participant or caused impairment. Sexual activity over the Internet may be a technologically updated version of telephone scatophilia.
Partialism is a variant of fetishism, in which the sexual urges and fantasies focus exclusively on a body part instead of an object. Partialism for feet and hair are examples. An interest in sexual body parts, such as breasts or penises, would not be considered partialism unless preoccupation with it was distressing or involved compulsive behavior in which the affected individual did not resist urges to touch those parts and did not attempt to engage in any other type of sexual behavior. Acrotomophilia, in which the sexual focus is on partners who are amputees, is a variant of partialism.
Sexual focuses on feces (coprophilia) or urine (urophilia) infrequently come to the attention of clinicians, as does a sexual preoccupation with enemas (klismaphilia). More infamous paraphilias such as necrophilia (corpses) and zoophilia (animals, as a primary focus of sexual urges and fantasies) are also rare in practice.
Revision date: June 20, 2011
Last revised: by Andrew G. Epstein, M.D.